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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparative evaluation of the blood clot, platelet-rich plasma, and platelet-rich fibrin in regeneration of necrotic immature permanent teeth: A clinical study
Isha Narang, Neelam Mittal, Navin Mishra
January-March 2015, 6(1):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.149294  PMID:25684914
Introduction: This study was designed as a clinical trial to evaluate and compare the regenerative potential of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and blood clot in immature necrotic permanent teeth with or without associated apical periodontitis. Methods: Access preparation was done under rubber dam isolation. Copious irrigation was done with 2.5% NaOCl and triple antibiotic paste was placed as an intracanal medicament. After 4 weeks, the cases were divided into four groups with five patients in each group. The study design had three test arms and one control arm. Group I in which mineral trioxide aggregate apexification was carried out and it was kept as control group to evaluate the regenerative potential of blood clot and platelet concentrates, Group II in which blood clot was used as scaffold in the canal, Group III in PRF was used as scaffold, and Group IV in which PRP carried on collagen was used as a scaffold. Results: The clinical and radiographic evaluation after 6 and 18 months was done by two independent observers who were blinded from the groups. The scoring was done as: None score was denoted by, Fair by 1, Good by 2, and Excellent by 3. The data were then analyzed statistically by Fisher's exact test using Statistics and Data 11.1(PRP Using harvest Smart PReP2) which showed statistically significant values in Group III as compared to other Groups. Conclusion: PRF has huge potential to accelerate the growth characteristics in immature necrotic permanent teeth as compared to PRP and blood clot.
  17 3,967 650
CASE REPORTS
Platelet-rich fibrin-mediated revitalization of immature necrotic tooth
Navin Mishra, Isha Narang, Neelam Mittal
July-September 2013, 4(3):412-415
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.118379  PMID:24124320
Contemporary studies have shown that the regeneration of tissues and root elongation is possible in necrotic immature permanent teeth. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative endodontic therapy by using platelet rich fibrin for revitalization of immature non vital tooth. An 11year old boy with the history of trauma was diagnosed with the pulpal necrosis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in tooth #21. Intra oral periapical radiograph showed open apex and associated immature supernumerary tooth with respect to tooth #21. Access preparation and minimal instrumentation was done to remove necrotic debris under copious irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Triple antibiotic paste was packed in the canal for four weeks. During second visit, 5 mL of whole blood was drawn from the medial cubital vein of the patient and blood was then subjected to centrifugation at 2400 rpm for 12 minutes for the preparation of Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) utilizing Choukroun's method. Triple antibiotic paste was removed and canal was dried. PRF clot was pushed to the apical region of tooth #21 using hand pluggers. Three milimetres of Mineral trioxide (MTA) was placed in cervical part of the root canal and permanent restoration was done three days later. Clinical examination at 6 and 12 months revealed no sensitivity to percussion and palpation in tooth #21and it responded positively to both electric pulp and cold tests. Radiographic examination showed resolution of periapical rarefaction, further root development and apical closure of the tooth #21 and its associated supernumerary tooth. On the basis of successful outcome of the present case it can be stated that PRF clot may serve as a scaffold for regeneration of necrotic immature teeth.
  15 4,476 639
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Tooth loss, chewing ability and quality of life
Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi, Jefferson Traebert, Renata Lasta, Thaiany Naila Da Rosa, Diogo Lenzi Capella, Andréia Antoniuk Presta
October-December 2012, 3(4):393-397
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.107424  PMID:23633796
Objectives: The aim of this study was to observe the tooth loss over age in a sample of Brazilian patients and analyze their ability to chew, relating it to how much is the loss of oral function impact over the quality of life (QoL). Materials and Methods: This is a single center, observational study and the data were collected through clinical examination followed of questionnaires to obtain sociodemographic information, the ability to chew (through the index of chewing ability [ICA]) and QoL (through Oral Health Impact Profile, OHIP-14). Results: The sample was composed by 171 random volunteers with mean age of 47 (SD 15.2). Low number of natural teeth was associated with an increase of age (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient-0.7, P < 0.001, 2-tailed) and chew disability (ICA: chew's ability vs. disability) (Mann-Whitney U-Test, P < 0.001). Chew disability showed a negative impact over the QoL (overall OHIP; Mann-Whitney U Test P < 0.001) and in five of seven OHIP domains (Functional Limitation, Physical Pain, Psychological Discomfort, Physical Disability, Psychological Disability). Age over than 40 years, was also associated with chewing disability (Pearson Chi-Square P < 0.001) and poorer QoL (Mann-Whitney U test P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study observed that the chewing disability produces a significant and negative impact over oral-health related QoL and both, poor QoL and chewing disability are related with the decrease of the number of natural teeth.
  14 3,132 311
REVIEW ARTICLE
Hypohyperdontia: Agenesis of three third molars and mandibular centrals associated with midline supernumerary tooth in mandible
Sivakumar Nuvvula, M Kiranmayi, G Shilpa, S.V.S.G. Nirmala
July-September 2010, 1(3):136-141
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.72775  PMID:22114403
Agenesis of teeth in a patient who also presents with a supernumerary tooth is one of the rare numerical anomalies in human dentition. Agenesis of third molars was shown to be associated with other missing permanent teeth. A review of literature on hypodontia including third molar agenesis, hyperdontia and a concomitant presence of these two conditions which is termed as hypohyperdontia is presented along with a case showing agenesis of three third molars, both mandibular central incisors and a midline supernumerary tooth.
  14 10,714 924
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy of benzydamine hydrochloride, chlorhexidine, and povidone iodine in the treatment of oral mucositis among patients undergoing radiotherapy in head and neck malignancies: A drug trail
G Roopashri, K Jayanthi, R Guruprasad
January-March 2011, 2(1):8-12
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.79292  PMID:22114446
Background and Objectives: Oral mucositis is a common and debilitating complication of radiotherapy, which is associated with significant morbidity. It is therefore extremely important that mucositis be prevented, or at least treated to reduce its severity and sequelae. The objective of the study was to manage oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and to reduce pain by using Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15%), Chlorhexidine (0.2%), and Povidone iodine (5%). Results: Benzydamine hydrochloride was observed to be effective and delayed the development of severe form of mucositis and appears more efficient in the management of radiation-induced mucositis. Conclusion: Benzydamine hydrochloride (0.15%) is safe, well tolerated, helps not just in delaying the progression of mucositis but also reduces the intensity of pain.
  13 4,542 428
Effects of mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol on vital pulp after pulpotomy of primary molars: An in vivo study
Brinda Godhi, PB Sood, Arun Sharma
October-December 2011, 2(4):296-301
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.91792  PMID:22346156
Background: Preservation of pulp vitality is of utmost importance to the normal physiological functioning of tooth in situ and physiological process of exfoliation in a tooth affected by disease or trauma. Pulpotomy serves such a purpose using various medicaments applied directly on vital pulp. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and formocresol (FC) as a pulp dressing after coronal pulp amputation (pulpotomy) in primary molars prospectively over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three healthy children, aged between 5 and 8 years, requiring pulp therapy were selected after clinical and radiographic assessment. A total of 50 maxillary and mandibular primary molars were treated by the conventional pulpotomy technique. The teeth were divided into two equal groups. In Group A, FC was used as the pulp dressing agent, and in Group B, MTA was used before restoration with stainless steel crowns. The research employed was a prospective study. The teeth treated were assessed postoperatively after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. The observations were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Clinically, both the groups showed 100% success at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. At 3 months, the radiographic success rates of FC and MTA were 92% and 96%, respectively, and at 6 and 12 months, the radiographic success rates of FC and MTA were 88% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: MTA showed a higher success rate than FC and may be a favorable material for pulpotomy in primary molars whose pulps have been compromised by a carious or mechanical pulp exposure
  12 8,898 823
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor
Sangeeta Palaskar, Supriya Koshti, Mahesh Maralingannavar, Anirudha Bartake
October-December 2011, 2(4):274-277
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.91787  PMID:22346151
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.
  11 4,207 342
Prevalence, causes, and correlates of traumatic dental injuries among seven-to-twelve-year-old school children in Dera Bassi
Rohini Dua, Sunila Sharma
January-March 2012, 3(1):38-41
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.94544  PMID:22557895
Aim : The paper aims to present a study conducted in Dera Bassi, Mohali, India. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in children of age group 7-12 years in private schools in Gulabgarh village. Material & Method : Age & sex distribution, etiological factors, risk factors and cause of injury were the parameters taken into consideration. The data collected was processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software program. Results : The overall prevalence of dental trauma was 14.5%, amongst the 880 subjects examined, out of which, 63.2% males and 36.4% females were found to be affected. The maxillary central incisor was found to be most commonly affected tooth (43.8%). The most common cause of injury reported was fall during playing (37.5%). Conclusion : Enamel fracture was most prevalent (50%). No risk factor was significantly higher than others; however children with Angle's class II div 1 malocclusion exhibited greater risk factor for traumatic injuries.
  11 3,873 391
Evaluation of interleukin -1B (+3954) gene polymorphism in patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis: A genetic association study
Sujata S Masamatti, Ashish Kumar, Tarun Kumar A Baron, Dhoom S Mehta, Kishore Bhat
April-June 2012, 3(2):144-149
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.96815  PMID:22919211
Background: IL-1 cytokines have central roles in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Polymorphism in the locus +3954 (C/T) of the human IL-1B gene has been shown to affect the levels of this cytokine. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the IL-1 B (+3954) gene polymorphism and the occurrence of different clinical forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods : Genomic DNA was obtained from 90 individuals and amplified using the PCR with specific primers flanking the locus +3954 of IL-1B. PCR products were submitted to restriction endonuclease digestion and analyzed by gel electrophoresis, allowing for the determination of the genotypes and detection of the polymorphism. Statistical Analysis: Fisher's exact test was used for comparing the frequency of genotype distributions between groups. Results: The chronic periodontitis group displayed a higher percentage of T alleles (38%) when compared to the aggressive periodontitis group (20%) and to the control group (19%). Conclusion: Our study data states that polymorphism in the locus +3954 of IL-1B gene could be a risk factor for chronic periodontitis in a sample of Indian population of Karnataka state.
  11 3,033 322
Reliability of natural head position in orthodontic diagnosis: A cephalometric study
Naveen Bansal, Jeetinder Singla, Gurmeet Gera, Monika Gupta, Gurpreet Kaur
April-June 2012, 3(2):180-183
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.96824  PMID:22919219
Natural head position is a standardized and reproducible position, of the head in an upright posture, the eyes focused on a point in the distance at eye level, which implies that the visual axis is horizontal. While natural head position is a standardized position, natural head posture is a physiologic position of the head, when taking the first step forward from the standing to a moving or walking posture. "Orthoposition" is characteristic for a person and reproducible, but differs among persons. Cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. NHP, a long-proposed modification, yet not fully into practice, can be an "ideal" reference for us to improve our cephalometric interpretation. This study was done to investigate sexual difference in the data obtained, from the study between male and female subjects and to compare the data given in 10-measurement cephalometric analysis based on natural head position, with the data obtained from the present study.
  11 3,356 383
Odontogenic infections: Microbiology and management
Rashi Bahl, Sumeet Sandhu, Kanwardeep Singh, Nilanchal Sahai, Mohita Gupta
July-September 2014, 5(3):307-311
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.137921  PMID:25191064
Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the involvement of fascial spaces, their bacteriology, sensitivity to antibiotics and management of odontogenic infection in 100 patients of age less than 60 years. Results: The mandibular 3 rd molar was found to be the most commonly offending tooth, followed by the mandibular 2 nd molar. The submandibular space was the most frequently involved fascial space both in single fascial space infections and multiple fascial space infections. Mixed growth (aerobic and anaerobic) was seen in culture smears of 60 patients, only aerobic bacterial growth was seen in 25 patients and anaerobic bacterial growth was seen in culture smears of 15 patients. Streptococcus viridans was the most frequently isolated bacteria among the aerobes, whereas Bacteroides and Prevotella were the most common bacterial species among anaerobes. Empirical antibiotic therapy in the form of Co amoxiclav and Metronidazole was given. Incision and drainage followed by extraction of the offending tooth/teeth was carried out. Conclusion: It was concluded that odontogenic infections were mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were necessary to isolate all pathogens. Successful management of these infections depends on changing the environment through decompression, removal of the etiologic factor and by choosing the proper antibiotic.
  11 4,766 816
Determination of the antibacterial activity of simvastatin against periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study
Shilpa Emani, Gayathri V Gunjiganur, Dhoom Singh Mehta
July-September 2014, 5(3):377-382
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.137959  PMID:25191077
Context and Objective: Statin treatment, apart from its hypolipidemic action has proven its antimicrobial activity by improving the survival rate of patients with severe systemic bacterial infections. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disorder of tooth supporting structures caused by a group of specific microorganisms. The objective of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of pure simvastatin drug against the primary periodontal pathogens. Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans using serial dilution method. Results: MIC of simvastatin against P. gingivalis was 2 μg/ml and A. actinomycetemcomitans was found to be <1 μg/ml which requires further dilutions to determine the exact value. Conclusions: Data suggests a potent antimicrobial activity of simvastatin against both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P gingivalis. Hence simvastatin can be prescribed as a dual action drug in patients with both hyperlipidemia and periodontal disease.
  11 2,688 309
CASE REPORTS
Management of pulpal floor perforation and grade II Furcation involvement using mineral trioxide aggregate and platelet rich fibrin: A clinical report
Rhythm Bains, Vivek K Bains, Kapil Loomba, Kavita Verma, Afreena Nasir
September 2012, 3(6):223-227
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.101100  PMID:23230369
To report the management of an iatrogenic perforation of pulpal floor in the furcation of mandibular first molar, using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). Unpredictable endodontic root/pulp chamber floor perforations resulting in unacceptable high rate of clinical failure has now been a lesser threat with the advent of new technologies and biocompatible materials that utilize the applications of basic research along with tissue engineering concept in clinical practice. Present case report illustrates the use of MTA and platelet rich fibrin (PRF) for the repair of the perforation defect and regeneration of the lost periodontium in furcation area. Although, histologic events and reaction of MTA with PRF is not studied so far, however, the autologous and biocompatible nature of the components used for present treatment modalities seems to be beneficial for the long term clinical results obtained in our case.
  10 6,054 597
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study
Satish Kumar, S Padmashree, Rema Jayalekshmi
July-September 2014, 5(3):312-317
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.137925  PMID:25191065
Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management.
  10 2,903 324
Prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus pathologies in dental patients on cone-beam computed tomographic images
Mamta Raghav, Freny R Karjodkar, Subodh Sontakke, Kaustubh Sansare
July-September 2014, 5(3):361-365
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.137949  PMID:25191074
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to infer and to record the prevalence of incidental maxillary sinus pathologies in patients presenting with dental problems using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans performed for maxillofacial diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has evaluated 201 patients (402 maxillary sinuses consecutive CBCT) for various incidental maxillary sinus pathologies by two observers. Pathologic findings were categorized as mucosal thickening (MT), opacification (OPA), polypoidal-mucosal thickening (PT), others (antrolith and discontinuity of the sinus fl oor) and no pathologic findings. Correlations for pathologic findings and the factors of age and gender were calculated. Results: The prevalence for total incidental findings is 59.7%. The present study showed MT (35.1%) as most prevalent finding followed by OPA in (16.6%), PT in 7.2% and others in 0.7%. There was no statistically significant difference between gender and between the age groups. There was no statistically significant difference between different indications groups for CBCT scans. Conclusions: The incidental maxillary sinus abnormalities are highly prevalent in the asymptomatic dental patients; hence oral radiologists should be aware of these incidental findings and comprehensively evaluate the entire captured CBCT volume, which can help in early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the patient.
  10 3,008 362
Dental age estimation using Willems method: A digital orthopantomographic study
Rezwana Begum Mohammed, PV Krishnamraju, PS Prasanth, Praveen Sanghvi, M Asha Lata Reddy, S Jyotsna
July-September 2014, 5(3):371-376
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.137954  PMID:25191076
In recent years, age estimation has become increasingly important in living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as a birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army, and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of left seven mandibular teeth for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population using Willems method. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomogram of 332 subjects (166 males, 166 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular teeth (from central incisor to the second molar on left quadrant) development was undertaken and DA was assessed using Willems method. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males (r = 0.71 and females (r = 0.88). The overall mean difference between the estimated DA and CA for males was 0.69 ± 2.14 years (P < 0.001) while for females, it was 0.08 ± 1.34 years (P > 0.05). Willems method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.69 years and females by 0.08 years and showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. The mean difference between DA and CA according to Willems method was 0.39 years and is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed significant relation between DA and CA. Thus, digital radiographic assessment of mandibular teeth development can be used to generate mean DA using Willems method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA.
  10 3,633 628
Estimation of total antioxidant capacity levels in saliva of caries-free and caries-active children
Reshma Dodwad, Anupama V Betigeri, BP Preeti
January-March 2011, 2(1):17-20
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.79296  PMID:22114448
Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate total antioxidant levels in caries-free and caries-active children. Materials and Methods: The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups; Group I and Group II, comprising of age groups 7 to 10 years and 11 to 14 years. respectively. Both the groups were then sub-divided equally according to gender. They were further divided into caries-free and caries-active children with 15 children in each group. Unstimulated saliva was collected by suction method. The samples were then analyzed for total antioxidant capacity. The data was then statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (unpaired). Results: The results revealed that the total antioxidant capacity of saliva increased significantly in caries-active children when compared to caries-free children. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that the physicochemical properties of saliva in particular total antioxidant capacity play a role in the development of caries.
  10 4,195 452
The effect of early childhood caries on the quality of life of children and their parents
Sonu Acharya, Shobha Tandon
April-June 2011, 2(2):98-101
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.83069  PMID:21957384
Objective: To determine the effect the early childhood caries (ECC) has on quality of life (QOL) parameters of both children and their parents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India. Clinical Setting: The study consisted of 500 children-parent pairs. The study was performed in Manipal and Bhubaneswar (250 children-parent pairs in each group), fulfilling the inclusion requirements of healthy children aged between 3 and 6 years old and children having ECC. The two groups were equally divided as follows: Group I - 250 child-parent pairs (Bhubaneswar) and Group II - 250 child-parent pairs (Manipal and Udupi). Interventions: This was a questionnaire-based study and the parents and their children were provided the questionnaires with various questions on QOL parameters. Questionnaires were validated in the respective local languages. Results: The data collected were analyzed using the SPSS (version 10.0) package. For assessing the internal consistency of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alfa test was used. To find the comparison between groups, Chi square test and "t" test were used. Conclusions: Oral health has a definite effect on the QOL of children. The most affected parameters by ECC were consumption of food and sleep in children, which significantly influence the parents. The questionnaire had good internal consistency in both Kannada and Oriya versions.
  10 3,581 445
Childhood caries as influenced by maternal and child characteristics in pre-school children of Kerala-an epidemiological study
N Retnakumari, Gibi Cyriac
January-March 2012, 3(1):2-8
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.94538  PMID:22557889
Purpose: The most common chronic disease of childhood is early childhood caries which is five times more prevalent than asthma and seven times higher than that of allergic rhinitis. Most children do not receive dental care until they are three years old, yet by the time more than thirty percent of children from lower socioeconomic groups already have caries. To determine the prevalence and severity of early childhood caries among pre-school children, to describe the child characteristics associated with the development of early childhood caries and to find the association of early childhood caries and maternal risk factors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out among children attending the immunization clinic of Sree Avittam Thirunal Hospital, Medical College, Trivandrum and children attending the randomly selected Anganwadies and Day care centres in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, wherein there are migrants from all over the State. A total of 350 children aged 12-36 months and their mothers were studied. The mother was first interviewed by a structured questionnaire; then the child's and mothers clinical examination was carried out covering caries experience and oral hygiene status. Results: Among 350 children studied the prevalence of dental caries in this study population was found to be 50.6 %( 177). Statistically significant associations were found between the severity of decay and the child's age(P<0.001), female gender(P<0.05),low socioeconomic status (P<0.05), feeding frequency (P<0.05), type of feeding(P<0.01), fell asleep with nipple in mouth (P<0.05), duration of breast feeding(P<0.001), consumption of cariogenic type of snacks(P<0.01), age of commencement of tooth brushing(P<0.05), brushing frequency(P<0.05), oral hygiene status of child(P<0.001), DMFS scores of mothers (P<0.001), and oral hygiene status of mother (P<0.001).
  10 3,609 474
Evaluation of micronuclei in tobacco users: A study in Punjabi population
Himanta Bansal, V Simarpreet Sandhu, Rajat Bhandari, Deepti Sharma
April-June 2012, 3(2):184-187
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.96825  PMID:22919220
Introduction: The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aim: The present study aimed to detect micronuclei in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms from the last 5 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 healthy male subjects (25 smokeless tobacco users, 25 smokers, and 25 non-tobacco users) were selected for the study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa and fixed with 95% alcohol. All the cytologic smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique. From each slide, ~1000 cells were examined under the 400× magnification and where micronucleated (MN) cells were located, they were examined under the 1000× magnification. Result: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers and controls. Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between increased micronucleus frequency and tobacco-using habits. So micronucleus assay can be used as a biomarker of genotoxicity.
  10 3,265 454
Evaluation of chemical composition and efficacy of Chinese propolis extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study
Garima Agarwal, Gayathri G Vemanaradhya, Dhoom S Mehta
July-September 2012, 3(3):256-261
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.103614  PMID:23293477
Background: Propolis as a natural remedy has maintained its popularity over long periods of time. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids present in Chinese propolis and to carry out an in vitro evaluation of its antimicrobial activity and the minimal inhibitory concentrations for Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). Materials and Methods: From the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP), total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, flavones and flavonols by the modified aluminum chloride colorimetric method, and flavanones by the 2.4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNP) method. Agar well diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of propolis against Pg and Aa. The minimum inhibitory concentration of propolis against the two bacteria was determined using serial tube dilution technique. Results: The total concentration of phenol in the EEP was 19.44%, flavones and flavonols 2.616%, and flavanones 16.176%. The inhibitory zone depicting antimicrobial activity ranged from 18 to 25 mm for Pg and from 12 to 14 mm for Aa. The concentration range of Chinese propolis that is sensitive to inhibit the growth of Pg was 0.1-0.0125 μg/ml and for Aa it was 0.1-0.025 μg/ml. Conclusion: These data suggest that Chinese propolis has potent antimicrobial activity against the two periodontopathogens, suggesting its possible use as a natural alternative to the widely used synthetic antibiotics for periodontal therapy.
  10 3,437 346
CASE REPORTS
Aggressive atypical ameloblastic fibrodentinoma: Report of a case
Girish B Giraddi, Vipul Garg
January-March 2012, 3(1):97-102
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.94557  PMID:22557908
Ameloblastic fibroma and related lesions constitute a group of lesions, which range in biologic behaviour from true neoplasms to hamartomas. This group of lesions is also sometimes referred to as mixed odontogenic tumors and usually includes ameloblastic fibroma, ameloblastic fibrodentinoma and ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Despite numerous efforts however, there is still considerable confusion concerning the nature and interrelationship of these mixed odontogenic tumors and related lesions. The malignant counterpart of these lesions namely aameloblastic fibrosarcoma, ameloblastic dentinosarcoma and ameloblastic odontosarcoma respectively are said to arise secondarily in their benign counterpart or de novo. Recurrence of the benign lesion raises the risk towards malignant transformation therefore a radical surgery should be planned inspite of enucleation or curettage. Here we present a case of an aggressive ameloblastic fibrodentinoma which was radically excised in the light of clinical and histological presentation followed by reconstruction of mandible.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration of nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® ) against streptococcus mutans
Goda Holla, Ramakrishna Yeluri, Autar Krishen Munshi
July-September 2012, 3(3):288-293
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.103620  PMID:23293483
Objective: We attempted to find the possibility of determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration needed for nano-silver base inorganic anti-microbial agent (Novaron® AG 300, AG 1100) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro using broth dilution assay. Materials and Methods: An ampoule of freeze-dried S. mutans NCTC reference strain was revived, and the colony-forming units (CFU) were calculated. The MIC and MBC was determined by broth dilution assay using different concentrations of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against 1 x 10 5 CFU/ml of S. mutans. Results: The MIC and MBC of Novaron® AG 300 and Novaron® AG 1100 against S. mutans were found to be 40 μg/ml. Conclusions: Novaron® has anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans. Further studies are needed to explore the applicability of these silver-supported anti- microbial agents in clinical dentistry.
  9 3,290 373
Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects
Avani R Pradeep, MV Ramchandraprasad, Pavan Bajaj, Nishanth S Rao, Esha Agarwal
January-March 2013, 4(1):27-31
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.111589  PMID:23853448
Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC) is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP) subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females) were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects), Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects), and Group 3 (25 CP subjects). GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.
  9 2,657 285
Comparison of shear bond strength of aesthetic restorative materials
BP Suryakumari Nujella, Manisha T Choudary, Satyanarayana P Reddy, M Kiran Kumar, T Gopal
January-March 2012, 3(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.94541  PMID:22557892
Aim : The present study was conducted to determine and compare the shear bond strengths of Conventional glass ionomer; Resin-modified glass ionomer; Polyacid-modified composite and Composite Resin, and to assess and determine the mode of failure (adhesive, cohesive, mixed). Materials and Methods : Occlusal dentin of 40 extracted human teeth were randomly divided into four groups of ten teeth, each based on the restorative materials tested as follows: Group I: Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (Control); Group II: Resin-modified Glass Ionomer Cement; Group III: Polyacid-modified Composite Resin; Group IV: Hybrid Composite Resin. The bonded materials were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) testing in a Instron Universal Testing Machine (UTM) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The bond failure location was examined by the use of a stereomicroscope at 10× magnification. The mean SBS of Groups I-IV obtained was 3.81, 9.71, 11.96 and 18.16 MPa, respectively. Comparison of mean shear bond strengths of all groups was done by one way ANOVA test and comparison of means in between groups by the Student's t test. Conclusion : It is concluded that the compomer restorative materials show higher shear bond strength than conventional glass-ionomer and resin-modified glass-ionomer, but less than composite resin.
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* Source: CrossRef
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