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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2016
Volume 7 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 423-578

Online since Tuesday, November 15, 2016

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EDITORIAL  

Eco-friendly green dentistry: The future of dentistry? p. 423
SG Damle
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194096  PMID:27994404
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GUEST EDITORIAL Top

Learned helplessness p. 426
Sivakumar Nuvvula
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194124  PMID:27994405
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

A retrospective study to compare improvement of implant maintenance by Medical Treatment Model p. 428
Katsuichiro Maruo, Kamleshwar Singh, Sadahiko Shibata, Go Sugiura, Takashi Kumagai, Katsushi Tamaki, Jyoti Jain
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194112  PMID:27994406
Background: Study comparing the improvement of implant maintenance is limited. Clinicians must be aware of implant maintenance to improve long-term success of implant. Aims: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether the Medical Treatment Model (MTM), which is a comprehensive treatment, includes initial risk assessment, lifestyle instructions, such as diet and habits, and a customized maintenance program to improve implant prognosis. Materials and Methods: Patients who were comprehensively treated were included and divided into two groups, test and control groups. The test group included patients who started treatment with MTM, whereas control group included patients who started treatment without MTM introduction. Moreover, subsequently, compliance with maintenance, occurrence of biological complications, and implant failure were evaluated. Results: About 199 patients with 515 implants were analyzed in the control group and 38 patients with 59 implants in the test group. In the control and test groups, the percentages of patients in the four compliance categories were, respectively, 73.9% and 89.5% for excellent compliance, 7.0% and 7.9% for good compliance, 14.6% and 0% for fair compliance, and 4.5% and 2.6% for poor compliance. There was a statistically significant difference in the compliance with periodontal and implant maintenance between the test and control groups (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, MTM significantly enhanced the compliance of patients treated with implants.
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Determination of sexual dimorphism in humans by measurements of mandible on digital panoramic radiograph p. 434
V Sairam, MV Geethamalika, Praveen B Kumar, G Naresh, Gareema P Raju
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194110  PMID:27994407
Background: Identification of sex is the first step in forensic science obtained from skeletal remains. Mandible, being a strong bone that is difficult to damage and disintegrate, is an important tool in sex determination. The present study is aimed to assess, compare, and evaluate the mandibular measurements as seen on digital panoramic radiographs to analyze their use in sexual dimorphism assessment. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic images of 100 each in both genders. Mandibular measurements were carried out utilizing RadiAnt DICOM Viewer 2.2.9 (32 bit) software (Medixant Company, Poland) and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the parameters on the right and left sides of mandible in both males and females were analyzed. Inferential statistics were performed using t-test to compare males and females with different variables. A statistical significance of P< 0.001 has been demonstrated for all the variables (except linear measurement of mandibular foramen). All variables showed increased measurements in males than in females. The accuracy of sex determination in mandibular ramus measurements is 79.5% on right side and 77% on left side, where as, in linear mandibular measurements it is 76% on right side and 79.5% on left side. Conclusion: Mandibular measurements on digital radiograph are useful in sex determination, and this study can be compared with other similar studies.
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Comparative evaluation of efficacy of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, maleic acid, and dimercaptosuccinic acid against the combination of these with sodium hypochlorite for removal of smear layer: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study p. 440
Rishikesh Meshram, Nikhil Sathawane, Roshan Samuel, Narayan Gunaji Jibhkate, Hitesh Gyanani, Sanjay Patil
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194123  PMID:27994408
Context: The effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and maleic acid (MA) when used alone on smear layer has been evaluated with mixed results, but their effect when combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has not been studied. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, MA, and DMSA against the combination of these with NaOCl in the removal of smear layer. Settings and Design: n = 4pq/L2
  • q = 1 − p
  • p = Incident rate
  • L = Allowable error.
Methods: One hundred and forty extracted, anterior teeth were radiovisiographically assessed. Access preparation was done; apical patency was established. Cleaning and shaping was accomplished using step-back technique. The specimens were randomly allocated as per the final irrigation protocol. After final irrigation, teeth were prepared for scanning electron microscope analysis, and the middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin were evaluated at ×1000 for evaluation of severity of occlusion of dentinal tubules with smear layer. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test and kappa test. Results: For combined irrigation, 10% DMSA * NaOCl was significantly better than all other groups both in the middle third and the apical third. It was more effective in the middle third than at apical third. Conclusion: Ten percent DMSA in combination with NaOCl removes the smear layer more effectively at both the middle and apical third.
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Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life in 10–14-year-old children of Mumbai, India p. 445
Rupinder Bhatia, J Jasmin Winnier, Nirali Mehta
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194105  PMID:27994409
Aims and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to establish the relationship of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as assessed by the Child Perception Questionnaire (CPQ 11–14) with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the child's apprehension with his/her dental appearance and how upset the child would feel if he/she is unable to obtain orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 604 children between the age group of 10–14 years to analyze the effect of malocclusion on the quality of life of children on the basis of impact on oral symptoms, functional limitation, emotional well-being, and social well-being. Malocclusion was evaluated using the IOTN, and the CPQ 11–14 was used to study the OHRQoL in children. The collected data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data statistically. Results: Out of the 604 children examined, boys showed effect on emotional well-being, whereas girls showed a significant correlation on both emotional and social well-being. There was a statistically significant correlation between IOTN and all the four domains of CPQ scores with respect to the two questions that were added to the CPQ questionnaire. Conclusion: A questionnaire when developed specifically for determining the effect of malocclusion on OHRQoL focusing more on emotional and psychological impact and less on oral symptoms and functional limitation will provide advantages of having limited questions, being less time-consuming, and providing better understanding of the patients' concern.
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Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma p. 451
Vishakha Chaudhari, GL Pradeep, Nilima Prakash, Aarti M Mahajan
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194108  PMID:27994410
Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15). Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population.
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Comparative evaluation of calcium silicate-based dentin substitute (Biodentine®) and calcium hydroxide (pulpdent) in the formation of reactive dentin bridge in regenerative pulpotomy of vital primary teeth: Triple blind, randomized clinical trial p. 457
Navneet Grewal, Rubica Salhan, Nirapjeet Kaur, Hemal Bipin Patel
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194116  PMID:27994411
Background: Considering the biological concerns of calcium hydroxide (CH) as a pulpotomy agent, an alternative silicate based dentin substitute i.e. Biodentine (Ca3SiO5) was evaluated clinically and radiographically. Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of dentin substitute (Biodentine) in regenerative pulpotomy of vital primary teeth that would giv a biological base to its use in forming reactive dentin bridge and overcoming the drawbacks of calcium hydroxide. Material and Methods: Randomised clinical trial on 40 bilateral carious primary molars in 20 participant children (aged 5-10 years) was carried out by same operator using Ca3SiO5(group-1) and CH (group-2) as vital pulpotomy agents. Blinded clinical and radiographic outcomes were observed at 3, 6 and 12 months interval. Results: Clinical outcomes of both protocols were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test applied at P < 0.05. Descriptive statistics were expressed as mean increase in dentin bridge formation in mms from two reference points in standardized radiographs using paired 't'- test at baseline and 12 months and found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) in group-1 when compared with group-2. Conclusion: Group-1 revealed statistically favourable regenerative potential along with clinical success compared to group 2 thereby sharing both indications and mode of action with CH, but without its drawbacks of physical and clinical properties.
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A comparative study to assess the effect of oral alprazolam as premedication on vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars p. 464
Sanjay Joshi, Arsalan Shakil Ahmed Ansari, Sima Mazumdar, Sidra Ansari
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194125  PMID:27994412
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and monitor the changes in vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Methods: This was an in vivo study conducted in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Terna Dental College. Sixty patients were randomly selected. Thirty patients were given a preoperative single dose of oral tablet alprazolam 0.5 mg as premedication (test group), whereas the other thirty were treated without any premedication (control group). Results: It was found that the mean systolic blood pressure during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar was raised in the control group and exhibited minimal fluctuation in the test group. Conclusion: The use of tablet alprazolam as premedication before surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars resulted in stability of vital parameters, secondary to reduced patient anxiety.
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Effects of probiotic drop containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Lactobacillus reuteri on salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus levels p. 469
Maryam Hajnorouzali Tehrani, Najmeh Akhlaghi, Leila Talebian, Jaber Emami, Siamak Etzad Keyhani
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194102  PMID:27994413
Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic drop containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Lactobacillus reuteri on salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) in children 3–6 years of age. Settings and Design: Sixty-one healthy children were randomly allocated into two parallel blocks in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial (IRCT2014120320202N1) from May to June 2015. Subjects and Methods: Finally 53 participants consumed five drops of placebo (n = 23) or probiotic (n = 30) every night for 2 weeks. Before intervention and 1 day after completion of the intervention, unstimulated salivary samples were collected, and microbiologic evaluations were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods Wilcoxon signed ranks, Mann–Whitney, and logistic regression. Results: SM level decreased significantly in probiotic group after intervention (P = 0.045), and there were significant differences in salivary SM counts after intervention between two groups (P = 0.04). In probiotic group, LB counts decreased significantly after intervention (P = 0.048); however, there were no significant differences between two groups (P = 0.216). Conclusions: Use of this probiotic drop decreased salivary counts of SM; however, LB counts did not change. In addition, use of the drop in children with higher salivary counts appeared to be more effective.
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Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial p. 475
Navya P Menon, Balagopal R Varma, Sureshkumar Janardhanan, Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, Bhat Sangeetha Govinda
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194109  PMID:27994414
Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4–7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P < 0.05]). However, intergroup comparison between MTA and TheraCal showed no statistical difference in reparative dentin formation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures.
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Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients: A comparative polymerase chain reaction study p. 481
Ramniwas M Kumawat, Sindhu M Ganvir, Vinay K Hazarey, Asifa Qureshi, Hemant J Purohit
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194097  PMID:27994415
Background: The detection frequency of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is not explored well in Indian population. Aim: The study was undertaken to detect P. gingivalis and T. denticola in CP as well as in AgP patients using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and to determine the relationship between the frequency of these two microorganisms and the severity of clinical periodontal parameters. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from ninety participants (thirty CP patients, thirty AgP patients, and thirty healthy participants) and the aforementioned two microorganisms were detected using PCR. Results: However, when CP and AgP were compared for the detection frequency of two microorganisms, no statistically significant difference was noted. A statistically significant increase in the number of bacteria-positive sites increased as the score of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and clinical attachment level of CP and AgP patients increased. Coexistence of P. gingivalis and T. denticola was frequently observed in deep periodontal pockets. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that P. gingivalis and T. denticola are significantly associated with the severity of periodontal tissue destruction. Statistically significant association exists between clinical periodontal parameters such as PI, GI, periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss and presence of both the microorganisms.
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Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate Plus™ and Biodentine™ for repair of furcal perforation in primary molars: An in vitro study p. 487
Farhin A Katge, Pooja Ravindra Shivasharan, Devendra Patil
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194100  PMID:27994416
Background: One of the unfavorable outcomes of endodontic treatment in primary molars is furcal perforation. During treatment, bacterial infection at the site of perforation should be prevented for better prognosis. Aim: This study aims to compare sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Plus™ and Biodentine™ for the repair of furcal perforation in primary molars using spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: Access opening was done for all ninety extracted teeth. Perforation was made in furcation area in all the teeth. The sample size consisted of ninety extracted teeth. They were divided into four groups, Group 1 (n = 30) in which perforations were repaired with MTA Plus™, Group 2 (n = 30) in which perforations were repaired with Biodentine™. The other two groups were considered as control groups, Group 3 (n = 15) in which perforations were left unsealed (positive control) and Group 4 (n = 15) without perforations (negative control). Dye extraction method was used to compare the sealing ability of MTA Plus™ and Biodentine™. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test to compare the mean between the different groups. Intergroup comparison was performed using post hoc Scheffe test. Results: The highest dye absorbance was seen in the positive control group with a mean value of 0.080 ± 0.033. The mean value of MTA Plus™ was 0.031 ± 0.026 and Biodentine™ was 0.024 ± 0.031. Conclusion: The mean value of dye absorption of MTA Plus™ was greater than Biodentine™ but it was statistically insignificant.
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A study of Ki-67 expression and its clinicopathological determinants in nondysplastic oral leukoplakia p. 493
Krishnendu Mondal, Rupali Mandal, Badal Chandra Sarkar
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194106  PMID:27994417
Context: Oral cancer is the third most prevalent malignancy in India. Leukoplakia is its most common precursor lesion. Aims: This study aimed at evaluation of the Ki-67 expression and thereby detection of the dysplastic potential in histopathologically nondysplastic oral leukoplakia (OL). Secondarily, another purpose was to correlate various clinicopathological factors with the labeling indices (LIs) of Ki-67 in those cases as well. Settings and Design: In total, 97 OL cases were examined. Relevant clinical and demographic information was retrieved from the pro forma, prefilled by the patients themselves during their first visit. Subjects and Methods: Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Its LIs were calculated and correlated with different clinicopathological parameters using statistical software SPSS version 16.0. Results: 58.8% (57 cases) lesions exhibited a Ki-67 positivity of ≤5%, and 25.8% (25 cases) lesions exhibited it in the range of 6%–25%. Only 15 (15.4%) patches were stained positively between 26% and 60%. Patients' age beyond 50 years, nonhomogeneous leukoplakia, and tobacco addiction were the significant risk factors for high Ki-67 scores (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Ki-67 is an essential immunohistochemical marker for epithelial dysplasia in OL, especially when the conventional histopathology fails to appreciate the same. In this purpose, Ki-67 labeling on a routine basis delivers the most convenient results for patients aged above 50 years, and/or addicted to tobacco products, and/or suffering from nonhomogeneous patches.
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A retrospective cross-sectional study on the prevalence of hypodontia in a target population of Al-Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia p. 500
Arbaz Sajjad, Samia Subhani Sajjad, Nadeem Husain, Ahmed Maashi Al-Enezi
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194101  PMID:27994418
Aim: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of hypodontia and to ascertain the need of interdisciplinary treatment for ensuing esthetic and functional problems in a target population of Al-Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: Using a dental administration software tool, a total of 1267 patients who presented to the outpatient clinics of the Orthodontic and Prosthodontic Departments between March 2015 and January 2016 were identified. Of those, 694 were females and 573 were males. All permanent teeth were investigated, except third molars. Results: The prevalence of hypodontia was 6.1%. The difference between genders was not statistically significant (P = 0.597) although female hypodontia prevalence was higher than males (6.6% and 5.5%, respectively). The majority of patients had one or two missing teeth. There were no significant differences between right and left sides for any particular tooth. The most commonly missing teeth were mandibular second premolar (40.1%), followed by the maxillary lateral incisor (20.4%) and then the maxillary second premolars (12.6%). Conclusions: The prevalence of hypodontia in Al-Jouf Province, Saudi Arabia, was within the average values portrayed in the majority of the published literature. The majority of affected individuals had one or two missing teeth. None of the patients examined had more than four missing teeth. There were no significant differences in the distribution of hypodontia between the affected jaws according to gender. Although less prevalent, considerable cases of bilateral missing teeth were found in the present study which necessitates the need for urgent interdisciplinary intervention and management.
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Influence of sex hormone levels on gingival enlargement in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy: A pilot study p. 506
Rajesh Hosadurga, MS Nabeel Althaf, Shashikanth Hegde, Kashyap S Rajesh, MS Arun Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194099  PMID:27994419
Background: Sex hormones may be a modifying factor in the periodontal disease pathogenesis. Aim: The association between gingival enlargement and sex hormone levels in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy needs to be determined. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontology in association with the Department of Orthodontics, Yenepoya Dental College, Yenepoya University, Mangaluru. Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted on 21 adolescent patients between the age group of 13–19 years, who had undergone fixed orthodontic therapy for at least 3 months. Apicocoronally, the gingival enlargement was assessed by the index described by Miller and Damm. Miranda and Brunet index was used to assess gingival overgrowth in the buccal–lingual direction in the interdental papilla. Furthermore, the patients were assigned to two groups - Group 1-GE and Group 2-non-GE. Sex hormones assessed were estradiol and progesterone in females and testosterone in males in both groups. Results: 57.1% of the study population had enlargement of the gingiva. The mean plaque score was 0.59 and 0.56, respectively, in both groups. A statistically significant relationship was found between estradiol and testosterone levels with gingival enlargement. However, a significant relationship was not obtained for progesterone levels with the gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Direct correlation between estradiol, testosterone, and gingival enlargement was seen.
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Comparative evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin, mineral trioxide aggregate, and calcium hydroxide as pulpotomy agents in permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis: A randomized controlled trial p. 512
Varun Kumar, Ruchi Juneja, Jigyasa Duhan, Pankaj Sangwan, Sanjay Tewari
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194107  PMID:27994420
Background: Pulpotomy has been proposed as an alternative for the management of irreversible pulpitis in permanent molars with closed apices. Aim: To compare the performances of calcium hydroxide (CH), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as pulpotomy agents in mature permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four permanent mandibular molars with carious exposure and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis were randomly allocated to three groups, and full pulpotomy was performed using CH,MTA, or PRF as pulpotomy agents. Pain intensity was recorded using numeric rating scale score at baseline, 24 h, 7 days, 6 months, and 1 year. Clinical and radiographic assessments were done at 6 months and 1 year. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal–Wallis test and Friedman test were used for intergroup and intragroup comparison of pain scores, respectively. The radiographic outcomes between the three study arms were compared using Chi-square test. Results: Clinical success rate was 94.4% at 7 days, which dropped to 85.4% at 12 months. All three agents were equally effective in providing pain relief at all the intervals tested, with no significant difference between them (P > 0.05 at all intervals). However, at 6 months and 12 months, 26.2% and 52.4% teeth depicted slight widening of periodontal ligament space. No significant difference was observed between the radiographic success rates observed with the three groups (P = 0.135 at 6 months, 0.717 at 12 months). Conclusion: Pulpotomy exhibited a high clinical success rate in mature molars with irreversible pulpitis and selection of biomaterial did not affect its outcome.
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Evaluation of melatonin levels in saliva in gingivitis and periodontitis cases: A pilot study p. 519
Karuna Lodhi, Charanjit Singh Saimbi, Mohammad Akhlaq Khan, Chandishwar Nath, Rakesh Shukla
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194115  PMID:27994421
Objective: To evaluate the melatonin levels in saliva in gingivitis and periodontitis cases. Background: Melatonin has strong antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and immunomodulating properties, acts on osteoblasts directly to stimulate cell proliferation and synthesis of Type I collagen, and promotes bone formation. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty participants were selected and divided into three groups (control group, gingivitis group, and periodontitis group). In each group, ten participants were taken. Salivary melatonin was estimated in each of the three groups. Results: Results from this study showed that the mean levels of salivary melatonin increased as severity increased from control to periodontitis, i.e., the mean levels were highest in periodontitis followed by gingivitis and least in control group. The melatonin level of all participants was positively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with their gingival index (r = 0.85, P< 0.01) and probing depth (r = 0.72, P< 0.01). Conclusion: Salivary melatonin level varied with the severity of gingivitis and periodontitis. With increased severity of periodontal disease, the level of salivary melatonin also increased suggesting that salivary melatonin may act as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases.
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Immunohistochemical expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog in histologic gradings of oral squamous cell carcinoma p. 524
Shiny S.R. Jasphin, Dinkar Desai, Siddharth Pandit, Nithin M Gonsalves, Preethi B Nayak, Amal Iype
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194111  PMID:27994422
Context: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23. PTEN has its major function in the regulation of cell adhesion, cell cycle arrest, migration, apoptosis programming, and differentiation. This genomic region suffers loss of heterozygosity in many human cancers. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical expression of PTEN in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to correlate the PTEN expression in gradings of OSCC. Materials and Methods: Thirty cases of paraffin tissue sections of previously diagnosed OSCC were taken. Of thirty cases, ten were well differentiated, ten were moderately differentiated, and ten were poorly differentiated. As a control, ten paraffin sections of oral normal mucosa tissue specimens were taken from patients undergoing extractions. The sections were stained for immunohistochemical expression of PTEN. The cells stained by PTEN antibody were counted, and an immunohistochemical score was obtained. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using Mann–Whitney's test and Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between normal mucosa and OSCC in immunohistochemistry staining. However, there was no significant difference in PTEN expression among gradings of OSCC. Conclusions: The study concluded that there was a decrease in PTEN expression in OSCC than normal mucosa. It also concluded that PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene which has a wide role in oral carcinogenesis.
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Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study p. 529
Sneha Dani, Ashwin Prabhu, KR Chaitra, NC Desai, Sudhir R Patil, Ranjan Rajeev
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194114  PMID:27994423
Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy. Methods: The study comprises of 75 subjects aged between 20-70 years, reporting to department of Periodontology, KLEs Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of 25 each. Group 1 – Healthy controls, Group 2 – Gingivitis Group, 3 – Chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile container and immediately pH was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deepest periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis and from first molars in healthy subjects using 4 sterile paper points. In gingivitis subjects samples were collected from areas showing maximum signs of inflammation. All paper points and saliva samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar culture media with bacitracin for quantification of the Streptococcus mutans colonies. Results: Increased colonization of Streptococcus mutans was seen in chronic periodontitis subjects both in saliva and sub-gingival plaque samples. There was also a positive correlation seen with the periodontal parameters. Conclusion: More severe forms of periodontal disease may create different ecological niches for the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans.
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Correlation of gingival thickness with gingival width, probing depth, and papillary fill in maxillary anterior teeth in students of a dental college in Navi Mumbai p. 535
Jyotsna Singh, Varsha J Rathod, Prajakta R Rao, Aardra A Patil, Deepak G Langade, Roshan K Singh
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194117  PMID:27994424
Context: The gingival biotype is of utmost importance for esthetics and biologic function. Anatomical characteristic of periodontium such as gingival thickness (GT), width of keratinized gingiva, and alveolar bone morphology will determine the behavior of periodontium when subjected to physical, chemical, or bacterial insult or during therapeutic procedure. Aims: The aim of this study was to correlate the GT with gingival width (GW), probing depth (PD), and papillary fill (PF) in relation to maxillary anterior region. Settings and Design: Undergraduate dental students and interns from a dental college in Navi Mumbai were enrolled in the study according to the inclusion criteria. Six teeth per subject were assessed; a total of 2178 maxillary anterior teeth were examined. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were examined clinically for GT, width of keratinized gingiva, pocket depth, and interdental PF. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: Spearman's correlation analysis test was performed to find the correlation of GT with GW, PD, and PF. Results: Positive correlation was found between GT and GW (r = 0.241). No significant correlation could be found between GT and PD; and between GT and PF. Conclusions: The present study confirmed a positive correlation between GT and GW. A weak negative correlation was found between GT and PD.
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Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era p. 539
Sarat Kumar Nayak, Bijay Kumar Das, Surya Narayan Das, Namita Mohapatra, Suryakanti Nayak, Lipsa Bhuyan
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194122  PMID:27994425
Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.
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Modified coronally advanced flap with and without orthodontic button application in management of multiple proximate gingival recession defects: A randomized clinical trial p. 544
Sumedh Khobragade, Abhay Kolte, Rajashri Kolte, Tushar Shrirao, Anushree Potey
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194121  PMID:27994426
Background: Gingival recession indicates oral display of the root surface due to apical movement of gingival margin. Coronally advanced flap (CAF) is often used periodontal plastic surgical technique to accomplish root coverage. The purpose of this clinical trial is to assess and compare the effectiveness of modified CAF with orthodontic button application (CAF*B) and without orthodontic button application (CAF) for the correction of multiple recession defects. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients exhibiting bilateral multiple proximate Millers Class I and/or Class II gingival recession defects were included in the study. Each set of proximate recession defects was designated randomly to test or control group. Control group was treated by CAF alone and test group by CAF*B. Baseline and postoperative clinical parameters at 2, 4, and 6 months time interval were recorded. Results: Mean root coverage percentage from baseline to 6 months in control group was 78.30% ± 20.75% and in test group was 92.23% ± 15.6%. Complete root coverage was 43.8% in control group and 77.47% in test group. Visual analog scale pain measurements did not reveal any difference among both the groups. Patient satisfaction with esthetics was very high in CAF*B group when compared with CAF group. Conclusion: Both treatment modalities, i.e., CAF and CAF*B are effectual in the treatment of proximate Miller's Class I and Class II gingival recession defects, but CAF*B showed significantly superior clinical results.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Endodontic management of maxillary first molar with atypical canal morphology: Report of three cases p. 550
Osama Adeel Khan Sherwani, Bhumika Kapoor, Rajat Sharma, Surendra Kumar Mishra
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194118  PMID:27994427
Maxillary first molar with three roots and 3–4 canals is a common occurrence. However, extreme variations in their canal morphology have been reported ranging from one single canal and one root to as many as eight root canals. This article presents three cases of successful endodontic management of maxillary first molars with atypical canal morphologies, thus highlighting the fact that variations do occur and an endodontist should always be aware of aberrancies in root canal system apart from the knowledge of normal root canal anatomy.
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Labial ankyloglossia: A rare case report p. 555
Rakesh Namdeo Bahadure, Eesha Jain, Parul Singh, Rameshkumar Pandey, Rakeshkumar Chuk
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194119  PMID:27994428
Tongue-tie or ankyloglossia is the congenital short thick lingual frenulum resulting in reduced mobility of the tongue. It limits the possibilities of the extension such as the protrusion and elevation of the tip of the tongue due to either the short of frenulum or genioglossus muscle or both. It can be observed at different ages with specific indications for treatment for each group and cause problems in the feeding, dental hygiene, speech, appearance, and self-esteem of affected patients. Although various degrees of the tongue-tie are mostly observed from the tip of tongue to the base of tongue, sometimes it may present unusually. The present article reports an unusual unique pattern of ankyloglossia where lingual frenum was exceptionally extended and merged with mandibular labium frenum. Reported case is one of the rarest types of ankyloglossia and emphasizes on its clinical implications, need for modifying diagnostic criteria, surgical management, and postoperative exercises.
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Odontogenic myxofibroma of gingiva in a pediatric patient with tuberous sclerosis: A rare case report p. 558
Nidhi Bhoyar, Sunita Gupta, Sujoy Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194120  PMID:27994429
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem genetic disease, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 6000–1 in 10,000. TSC is an autosomal dominant syndrome involving heart, kidneys, lungs, and skin. The classic triad of TSC is seizures, mental retardation, and angiofibromas; this triad occurs in only 29% of patients. The clinical diagnostic guidelines on TSC are prepared based on clinical features, radiographic findings. The most common oral manifestations of TSC are fibroma, gingival hyperplasia, and enamel hypoplasia. Odontogenic myxofibroma represents a rare slow-growing benign neoplasm found rarely in children below 10 years or adults over 50 years of age. The prevalence of myxoma is between 0.04% and 3.7%. Here, we are reporting a rare case of myxofibroma of gingiva in an 8-year-old female TSC patient.
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Nonsurgical endodontic therapy along with minimal invasive treatment utilizing Bhasker's hypothesis for the management of infected radicular cystic lesion: A rare case report p. 562
Sanjeev Kumar Salaria, Shilpa Kamra, Simrat Kaur Ghuman, Garima Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194098  PMID:27994430
Radicular cyst (RC) is the most common odontogenic cyst of inflammatory origin affecting the jaws; involves the roots of the carious or traumatic non-vital tooth. Different therapeutic modalities, such as nonsurgical endodontic therapy or surgical enucleation with primary closure, decompression etc., were proposed for the management of such lesions. Presenting a case of a 28-year-old otherwise healthy male patient who reported with pain and swelling with respect to tooth #41, 31. Diagnosis of infected RC at a rare location was established on the basis of clinical, radiographical and fine needle aspiration cytological examination. Looking after the clinical characteristics, origin, extension, size of cystic lesion and patient cooperation; nonsurgical endodontic therapy utilizing Bhasker's hypothesis was opted. One year post-operative result suggested that nonsurgical endodontic therapy along with minimally invasive treatment utilizing Bhasker's hypothesis is an effective tool to transform infected radicular cystic lesion to healthy periapical periodontal tissue.
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Congenital bilateral syngnathia and tracheoesophageal fistula: A rare presentation p. 566
Ankit Khasgiwala, Sagar Jangam, Shashi Sharma, Vilas Newaskar
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194103  PMID:27994431
Congenital syngnathia (CS), first reported by Burket in 1936, is a rare condition, with <50 reported cases and is associated with other conditions and syndromes. CS restricts mouth opening, causing difficulty in feeding, swallowing, and respiration. This report puts forth the clinical findings and management of this challenging condition in association with tracheoesophageal fistula in a neonate.
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Presurgical nasoalveolar molding: A boon to facilitate the surgical repair in infants with cleft lip and palate p. 569
Prabhakar Ramasetty Attiguppe, YM Karuna, Chandrashekar Yavagal, Saraswathi V Naik, BM Deepak, Rekhamani Maganti, Chaithanya G Krishna
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194104  PMID:27994432
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly. Rehabilitation of CLP generally requires a team approach. Alveolar and nasal reconstruction for these patients is a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. Various procedures have been attempted to reduce the cleft gap, so as to obtain esthetic results postsurgically. The presurgical nasoalveolar molding (PNAM) technique, developed by Grayson, is a new approach to presurgical infant orthopedics. PNAM reduces the severity of the initial cleft alveolar and nasal deformity. Thus, it enables the surgeon and the patient to enjoy the benefits associated with repair of a cleft deformity that is minimal in severity. This article presents a brief insight into PNAM with a case series of three different cases (one unilateral and two bilateral) which underwent PNAM treatment and gave an excellent surgical prognosis.
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Management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery p. 574
Jitesh Haryani, Amit Nagar, Divya Mehrotra, Rani Ranabhatt
DOI:10.4103/0976-237X.194113  PMID:27994433
Orthognathic surgery in conjunction with fixed orthodontics is a common indication for interdisciplinary management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A thorough analysis of pretreatment investigations and development of a surgical visual treatment objective is essential to plan the type of surgical technique required. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery is the most common type of surgical procedure for severe skeletal discrepancies. The present case report is a combined ortho-surgical team management of a skeletally Class III patient. The severity of the case required bilateral upper first premolar extraction for dentoalveolar decompensation and simultaneous “Two-jaw surgery” with maxillary advancement of 4 mm and mandibular setback of 7 mm. Postsurgery, a pleasing good facial profile was achieved with Class II molar relation and positive overjet.
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