Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
  Home | About us | Editorial board | Search
Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Advertise
Instructions | Online submission| Contact us | Subscribe |


Login  | Users Online: 2351  Print this pageEmail this pageSmall font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 544-547  

Endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine with type two canals configuration

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication19-Nov-2015

Correspondence Address:
Seema Yadav
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi - 110 002
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0976-237X.169856

Rights and Permissions

Successful endodontic treatment depends upon the clinician's knowledge and ability to manage aberrant anatomy. The mandibular canine normally comprises one canal and one root but 15% may have two canals with one or two foramina and even less frequent may have two roots. This paper presents a case report of bilateral mandibular canine having two root canals which merge into one canal and one foramina.

Keywords: Bilateral, canal configuration, endodontic management, mandibular canine

How to cite this article:
Yadav S. Endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine with type two canals configuration. Contemp Clin Dent 2015;6:544-7

How to cite this URL:
Yadav S. Endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine with type two canals configuration. Contemp Clin Dent [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Sep 20];6:544-7. Available from:

   Introduction Top

Proper diagnosis of the root canal system influences the endodontic management and its outcome.[1] Mandibular canines usually have one root and one root canal however, approximately 15% may have two canals or may have two roots.[2]

A previous study of Sikri and Kumar [3] on permanent human mandibular canines showed anatomic variation in the root canal system. They found the canal configurations (Vertucci's). Type I (70%), Type II (4-12%), Type III (4-6%), Type IV (4-10%), Type V (2%), straight canals (53.84-60.71%), curved canals (46-39%), apical foramen centrally located (34.61-57.14%), and apical foramen laterally located (65.38-42.85%).

Various clinical cases has been reported in the literature involving anatomical variation in mandibular canines. A review of literature on previous studies of mandibular canines was shown in [Table 1] (percentage of canals with Type II morphology),[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11] [Table 2] (Bilateral presence of two canals in a single root [case reports]),[12],[13],[14],[15] [Table 3] (Type II canal configuration in a single root [case reports]).[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21]
Table 1: Percentage of Type II canal configuration in the mandibular canines in different studies

Click here to view
Table 2: Mandibular canine with bilateral two canals in a single root (case reports)

Click here to view
Table 3: Mandibular canine with Type II canal configuration in single root (case reports)

Click here to view

It was found that only one study [15] was reported with bilateral Type II morphology in mandibular canine till date. The present case report describes the bilateral mandibular canine with two canals joining short of the apex with one canal and one foramina in a single root.

   Case Report Top

A 54-year-old woman reported to the department with discolored bilateral mandibular canines. Both the canines were carious [Figure 1]. Radiographic examination revealed bilateral mandibular canine with two canals without any periapical changes [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Both the canines were nonresponsive to electric pulp tester. A diagnosis of pulpal necrosis was made. As the carious lesion was on the mesio buccal surface, the carious lesion was removed and the access was made from the buccal aspect [Figure 4]. The buccal and lingual orifices were identified and negotiated with no 8 and 10 k files. The buccal canal was having a straight path and the lingual canal was curved. The GG drill no 1, 2 were used in crown down method under dental operating microscope to enlarge the orifices and to have the straight line access. The working length was measured with the help of an apex locator and verified with radiograph [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. The lingual canal was merged with the buccal canal forming single canal at the apical third. Both the canals were instrumented and obturated by the method described by Castellucci.[22] The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (glyde, dentsply) was used during the preparation. The canals were irrigated with 3% NaOCl and saline with each change of instrument. The buccal canal was enlarged till 25.04 Hyflex CM file (Coltene Endo). The lingual canal was prepared till 20.04 Hyflex CM file (Coltene Endo). The Ca (OH)2 dressing were placed in the canals and the patient was called after 1 week. The patient was asymptomatic after a week and the canals were irrigated with 3% NaOCl and saline, dried with paper points and were obturated with Gutta-percha of respective size and AH plus sealer using lateral condensation. The access preparation was thereafter restored with composite resin [Figure 2] and [Figure 3].
Figure 1: Clinical photograph of bilateral mandibular canine

Click here to view
Figure 4: Access preparation showing two canals in 43 and 33

Click here to view
Figure 2: Preoperative working length and final obturation radiograph of 33

Click here to view
Figure 3: Preoperative working length and final obturation radiograph of 43

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

The root canal morphology can be complex and should be thoroughly understood prior to the endodontic treatment. Thorough evaluation of radiograph is equally important. Endodontic exploration using magnification tools such as dental operating microscope helps in the identification of an extra canal. Additional root canals if not detected, are a major reason for failure [23] of the treatment.

Mandibular canines usually have a single root with one canal; however, variation in the number of roots and root canals has been reported. Previous studies [4],[5],[24] reported that 15% of mandibular canines possess two canals with one or two foramen. Mandibular canine with two roots and two canals,[2] two roots and three canals with two foramina [25],[26] have also been described. All these cases show complex nature of the root canal, morphology of mandibular canines. The case reported was also of complex nature showing bilateral presentation of Type II canal morphology in mandibular canines within the same patient. Root canal in a mandibular canine with a single root and single canal usually does not cause procedural errors during instrumentation. However, mandibular canines presenting with two roots or two canals poses difficulty during biomechanical preparation as the long axis of the canal meets the crown surface at the incisal edge or on the labial surface. Therefore modifications in the access preparation were needed to avoid procedural error particularly on the buccal side of the canal. In addition, in cases of two canals and two canal orifices, the closer the orifices to each other, the greater the chance of the two canals joining at some point within the body of the root.[6],[8],[12] In the present case, since there was carious lesion on the mesial aspect with wide buccal embrasure on both the mandibular canines, access preparation was made from the bucco-mesial aspect thereby preserving the tooth structure and making the straight line access and instrumentation of both the canals convenient and predictable.

Type II canal configuration where two canals merge into a single canal short of the apex requires meticulous adherence to technicalities. Blockage of canal may occur as the pulp tissue or organic debris may be pushed from one canal into the adjoining canal. Manual exploration of these canals should be done carefully with radiographs before the use of larger or rotary instruments to avoid procedural error. Coronal pulpal tissue removal with hand instruments should be done as much as possible prior to going down into the canal.[27]

The use of rotary instrument in such canal configuration requires precaution to avoid instrument separation as the instrument would be penetrating the joined part at a very acute angle or at a right angle, when it reaches the canal confluence.[28] Therefore in the present case, Hyflex CM files with 4% taper were used for enlargement. Schilder [29] suggested alternative preparation of such canals to prevent apical hourglass preparation which otherwise makes obturation difficult. Castellucci [22] suggested the cleaning and shaping of the straight canal first till the apex followed by curved canal till the point of merging. During obturation also, the main canal should be first obturated and thereafter the second canal was obturated to the point of merging. This case report also followed the same procedure for canal configuration.

   Conclusion Top

The knowledge of the morphologic variation is of paramount importance for the clinician for diagnosing and treating such complicated cases. Radiographs and magnification devices such as dental operating microscope are also important tools in identification and management of extra canals.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Soares LR, Arruda M, de Arruda MP, Rangel AL, Takano E, de Carvalho Júnior JR, et al. Diagnosis and root canal treatment in a mandibular premolar with three canals. Braz Dent J 2009;20:424-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
D'Arcangelo C, Varvara G, De Fazio P. Root canal treatment in mandibular canines with two roots: A report of two cases. Int Endod J 2001;34:331-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
Sikri V, Kumar V. Permanent human canines: Configuration and deviations of root canals: An in-vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2003;6:151-2.  Back to cited text no. 3
  Medknow Journal  
Pineda F, Kuttler Y. Mesiodistal and buccolingual roentgenographic investigation of 7,275 root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1972;33:101-10.  Back to cited text no. 4
Vertucci FJ. Root canal anatomy of the human permanent teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1984;58:589-99.  Back to cited text no. 5
Pécora JD, Sousa Neto MD, Saquy PC. Internal anatomy, direction and number of roots and size of human mandibular canines. Braz Dent J 1993;4:53-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
Caliskan MK, Pehlivan Y, Sepetçioglu F, Türkün M, Tuncer SS. Root canal morphology of human permanent teeth in a Turkish population. J Endod 1995;21:200-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
Sert S, Bayirli GS. Evaluation of the root canal configurations of the mandibular and maxillary permanent teeth by gender in the Turkish population. J Endod 2004;30:391-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
Bakianian Vaziri P, Kasraee S, Abdolsamadi HR, Abdollahzadeh S, Esmaeili F, Nazari S, et al. Root Canal configuration of one-rooted mandibular canine in an Iranian population: An in vitro study. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects 2008;2:28-32.  Back to cited text no. 9
Rahimi S, Milani AS, Shahi S, Sergiz Y, Nezafati S, Lotfi M. Prevalence of two root canals in human mandibular anterior teeth in an Iranian population. Indian J Dent Res 2013;24:234-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Somalinga Amardeep N, Raghu S, Natanasabapathy V. Root canal morphology of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in Indian population using cone beam computed tomography. Anat Res Int 2014;2014:731859.  Back to cited text no. 11
Tiku AM, Kalaskar RR, Damle SG. An unusual presentation of all the mandibular anterior teeth with two root canals – a case report. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2005;23:204-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Tyagi S, Tyagi P, Singh SK, Dwivedi V, Jaiswal H, Mishra P. Bilateral mandibular canine with two canals in one root. Int J Dent Clin 2013;5:29-30.  Back to cited text no. 13
He LB, Shao MY, Xu X, Li JY. Bilateral mandibular canines with single root and multiple canals. J Dent Sci 2014;9:199-201.  Back to cited text no. 14
Nandini S, Velmurugan N, Kandaswamy D. Bilateral mandibular canines with type two canals. Indian J Dent Res 2005;16:68-70.  Back to cited text no. 15
Nandwani S, Nandwani A. Endodontic treatment of mandibular canine with type II canal morphology: A case report. J Conserv Dent 2002;59:83-5.  Back to cited text no. 16
Wang L, Zhang R, Peng B. Clinical features and treatment of mandibular canines with two root canals: Two case reports. Chin J Dent Res 2009;12:61-2.  Back to cited text no. 17
Arora V, Nikhil V, Gupta J. Mandibular canine with two root canals – An unusual case report. Int J Stomatol Res 2013;2:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 18
Shrivastava N, Nikhil V, Arora V, Bhandari M. Endodontic management of mandibular canine with two canals. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 2013;5:24-6.  Back to cited text no. 19
  Medknow Journal  
Chou YH, Chang CW, Hung WC, Lin LH. The morphology variation of mandibular canine: Two cases report.JES 2013;4:31-6.  Back to cited text no. 20
Rijal S, Yadav A, Shetty K. Endodontic management of bilateral mandibular canines with an unusual root canal anatomy. Saudi Endod J 2015;5:46-50.  Back to cited text no. 21
  Medknow Journal  
Castellucci A. Two Canals in a Single Root: Clinical and Practical Considerations. Endodontic Practice; 2001. p. 17-23. Available from: [Last accessed on 2003 Apr 03].  Back to cited text no. 22
Haapasalo M, Udnaes T, Endal U. Persistent, recurrent, and acquired infection of the root canal system post treatment. Endod Topics 2003;6:29-56.  Back to cited text no. 23
Green D. Double canal in single roots. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1973;35:689-96.  Back to cited text no. 24
Heling I, Gottlieb-Dadon I, Chandler NP. Mandibular canine with two roots and three root canals. Endod Dent Traumatol 1995;11:301-2.  Back to cited text no. 25
Holtzman L. Root canal treatment of a mandibular canine with three root canals. Case report. Int Endod J 1997;30:291-3.  Back to cited text no. 26
Warren RK. Endodontic management of the mandibular second molar. Dentistry Today;28:2;2009.  Back to cited text no. 27
Furri M, Tocchio C, Bonaccorso A, Tripi TR, Cantatore G. Canal confluency in mandibular molars. Endod Pract 2007;1:53-9.  Back to cited text no. 28
Schilder H. Cleaning and shaping the root canal. Dent Clin North Am 1974;18:269-96.  Back to cited text no. 29


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
   Case Report
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded146    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal